Turkmenistan hakkında bilgi
Republic of Turkmenistan
Total Area: 488,100 sq km
Land Area: 488,100 sq km
Water Area: 0 sq km
Highest Point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m
Lowest Point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m; note - Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in northern Turkmenistan with a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya (the lake has dropped as low as -110 m)
Capital City: Ashgabat
Independence Day: 27 October 1991
Languages: Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Religion: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
Life Expectancy: 61.29
Currency: Turkmen manat (TMM)
Industries: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Exports: gas 57%, oil 26%, cotton fiber 3%, textiles 2%
Import: machinery and equipment 60%, foodstuffs 15%
Historians and archeologists consider sunny Turkmenistan as the home of the most ancient civilizations in the world. The latest archaeological discoveries allow one to date the origins of human society in this area from the 800 thousand years B.C.
Archaeological excavations in the Damdamcheshme I and II grottoes on the slopes of the Big Balkhan Mountains show that between the Mesolith and Neolith one of the ancient world centres of the domestication of animals was situated here. It was also a place where a life of hunting was being replaced by a productive economy.
The civilization of the Middle ages depended for their development on the antigue civilizations of Turkmenistan; Turkmenistan became a centre of world power, the states of Khorezmsharhs (Khorezmian Kings) and Great Seljuks, in which the consolidation of the ancestors of the Turkmen people and tribes into one Turkmen ethnos took place.
The territory of Turkmenistan stretches for 1110 kilometres from west to east and 650 kilometres from north to south. Turkmenistan has border in the north with Kazakhstan, in the east and north-east with Uzbekistan in the south with Iran and in the south-east with Afghanistan. Population: 4,7 million. Turkmens constitute 72% of the republic's population, Russians 10%, Uzbeks 9% and others 9% . It is a modern city with the population of 450.000 peoples.
Turkmenistan is devided into five regions (velayats). They are: Akhal, Balkan, Dashkhovuz, Lebap, Mary.
The Turkmen language, of the Turkic group, is the state language of the republic, under the Constitution, which was adopted on May, 18, 1992.
The mineral-raw material, economic potential of Turkmenistan, relative to its population, is very high and based on the political and social stability of Turkmenistan and its vast reserves of natural resources and raw materials.
For a person who looks at a map of Turkmenistan for the first time it presents an uninterrupted desert. It is not surprising. The substantial part of the total territory of Turkmenistan is occupied by Karakum sands. Still the first impression is sure to appear to be false, as not many of the countries can be proud of such a wealth of plant and animals kingdoms, such a variety of landscapes and climatic zones. The nature of Turkmenistan is rich in tens of thousands of types of flora and fauna. Many of these types are unique and can be seen only here on the Turkmen land. The nature of Turkmenistan is also a mighty source of material resources for the people living here. With every step in the desert one can feel the mighty breath of life. The nature of sands is not always favorable to man. But it is the living nature, existing in accordance with the laws that have been laid down for millennia. The conditions of hot dry climate caused the development of unique forms of plants able to get at life-giving moisture from the great depths, to stand still in its development for the period of severe withering summer heat and to bloom wild and unstoppable in the period of short life-giving spring.
In the common ecological system of desert, thanks to the sharp biological balanse many representatives of the animal world feel fine as well. All these representative of the fauna beginning from the crocodile of the sands - varan and ending with the ship of desert - camel - are unique mainly because they posses the surprising ability to acclimatization to the extreme climatic peculiarities.
And skilful and careful handling of life potential of the desert can also bring substantial profit to man. The desert ranges only allow grazing of multithousand herds of sheep and camels.
But most brightly and completely the Nature of Turkmenistan reveals its colorful variety . In those climatic zones, where there is an abundance of water, the basis of life. Vibrant Mooning of life rains in the cool foothills, in the river valleys, in the boundaries between different natural zones.
According to the calculations of scientists the plant world of Turkmenistan includes more than 2600 types of wild plants. The animal world of Turkmenistan is represented by not less than 700 types of vertebrate and 10000 types invertebrate animals. The nature of Turkmenistan is rich in medicine herbs. 344 types of medicine herbs grow only in the territory of Turkmenistan.
But not of less value are the unique healing springs, salty lakes rich in minerals and many other manifestations of multifarious nature. As for recreational potential Turkmenistan can be rightfully considered to be one of the leading in the world.
One cannot know nature of Turkmenistan not having visited the Caspian sea-shore. The Caspian sea is the largest in the world self-contained salty sea (lake) which has no connection with the world's oceans. On the territory of the Caspian sea only one can come across flamingo, pelicans and many other birds who are on the list of endangered species (the Red Book). Special attention of the nature protection service is raid to preserving the populations of valuable sturgeon fishes.