Information about city Termez in Uzbekistan
Termez is administrative center of Surkhandarya Region. It is situated on the right bank of Amudarya at the place of confluence of Surkhandarya into Amudarya. The viloyat’s terrritory is stretched from the north to the south by 180-200 km, from the west to the east by 70-140 km and its total area is 20.1 thousand sq. km. Population is 1,705 thousand inhabitants. Major part of the oblast is occupied by the Surkhan-Sherabad valley bordered by mountain ranges from three sides: Kutitangtag and Baysuntag int the west, Gissar range in the north, Babatag in the east. It is the most sunny area of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Winter is very warm, and summer is long and hot. Major nnatural zones are river valleys, foothill plain, adirs (hills) and mountains. Surkhandarya and Sherabad are the main rivers.
In ancient times this territory was part of Baktrian State. One of the first human sites relates to the middle paleolite era (1-40 thousand years B.C.). This is the famous Teshiktash grotto. Khalchayan, Dalverzintepa, Ayirtam, Kyzyltepa, Bandykhan and Kampirtepa are among the most famous ancient monuments.
City of Termez was founded in the middle of 1st millennium B.C. Ancient settlement emerged on the natural hill on Aamudarya’s bank and it was well strengthened.
In III-II centuries B.C. Termez became the economic center of Northern Baktria.
In I century B.C. - IV century A.D. Termez became the large city of Kushan Kingdom with well fortified citadel. During this period of history Termez was one centers of Buddhism and remained its importance until Arab invasion. In 689 Termez was occupied by the Arabs for the first time, and after 15 years it was finally included in the Arab Caliphate.
In IX-X centuries Termez was part of Takhirids’ state and then part of Samanids’ kingdom.
Then it belonged to Gaznevids, Seldjukids and Karakhanids. Medieval city reached its prosperity in IX - early XIII centuries. River crossing was of great importance - there was the main port here.
In 1220 Chengiz-Khan’s troops approached the city’s walls. On the eleventh day of siege the citadel was conquered with attack. Termez was destroyed and residents were killed.
In early XIV the city was revived under old name but at a new place and became part of the state of Chagatayids.
In 1333 on the way to India Ibn Battuta, Moroccan traveler stopped by in Older Termez. Here he found the shelter and food in zaviya-khanaka of one of the Azizan seyyids-sheikhs.
In the second half of XIV - early XV centuries Termez was one of the significant cities of Temur’s Empire. Rue Gonzales de Klavikho, representative of Henri III, the Spanish King at Temur’s court stopped here and gave a colorful description of the city in his diary.
In early XVI century Termez became the part of the Sheibanids’ state. During this time it became the object of long intestine struggle.
In XVII century under Djanids the city’s territory was reduced. Later the city was desolated.
In 1758 it was restored by Mukhammed Rakhim-khan of Mangit dynasty, but soon the city was destroyed again.
In the second half of XIX century only two settlements were situated in this place: Patta Kissar on Amudarya’s bank and Salavat near to Surkhandarya.
During the 90’s of XIX century the military of the tsar army built the fortress called «Termez- Urochishe» near the Patta Kissar. Contemporary Termez has grown on its basis.
Architectural monuments of Termez
Kyrk-Kiz (out-of-town Palace Country Estate)
(XI th-XIV th cc.)
Palace of Termez rulers (XI th-XII th cc.)
Architectural Complex of Khakim at-Termezi (X th-XV th cc.)
Architectural ensemble Sultan-Saodat (X th-XVIII th cc.)
Kokildora Mausoleum-Khanaka (XVI th c.)
Kara-Tepe Monastery (2-4th cc. A.D.)
Fayaz-Tepe Monastery (1-3th cc. A.D.)
Zurmala Tower (1-2th cc. A.D.)